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Public Policy

How the Ukraine War Stimulated Food Nationalism: The Case...

The Russo-Ukrainian war has given rise to a new wave of “food protectionism” policies brought about by governments’ endeavors to secure basic food and agricultural commodities for their citizens amid the global shortage of supplies and sharp hikes in prices.  Countries started forming new trade barriers to restrict or completely...

A Comprehensive Vision: The Cultural and Touristic Dimensions of...

On 24 April, Secretary-General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) Dr. Mustafa Waziri announced the launching of development operations for the archaeological Gabḥānah of Muhammad Ali Pasha. Waziri indicated that these development operations will continue for six months and that they align with the efforts of the...

Private Tutoring Centers: Supplementing or Competing with Schools?

Private tutoring has always sparked controversy whenever put into question. The Ministry of Education, backed by parliamentarians, seeks shutting private tutoring centers down and prosecuting their owners on the grounds that teaching and learning should only be provided by schools and that these centers run counter to the principle...

Fruitful Efforts: Egypt’s National Agricultural Projects and Achieving Self-Sufficiency

The agricultural sector is a major component of the Egyptian economy, which is why Egypt has placed agricultural development at the top of its priorities amid its endeavors to increase the contribution of the agricultural sector to the gross domestic product (GDP). Egypt wants to boost agricultural production towards...

Calculated Maneuvering: Dimensions and Impacts of Selling Russian Energy...

Since the outbreak of the Russo-Ukrainian war, global energy markets have been witnessing successive developments that placed unprecedented pressure on global supplies amid mutual sanctions between the Western countries and Russia, including Putin's decision to sell Russian energy in rubles rather than the US dollar; otherwise the existing contracts...

Successive Increases: The Impact of the Russia-Ukraine War on...

The Egyptian real estate development sector has been greatly affected by the repercussions of the Russo-Ukrainian war, particularly with the successive increases in the prices of construction supplies, primarily prices of rebar that rose significantly, which had a knock-on effect on the cost of real estate projects.  Since the outbreak...

Promising Opportunities: Egypt and the Export of Construction Services...

Several African and Arab governments are striving to stimulate development and construction to mitigate the repercussions of the unrest and turmoil that have been experienced over the past decades. In this vein, Egypt is keen to provide its expertise in fields of development and reconstruction for fraternal states to speed...

How Did the Russia-Ukraine War Affect the Russian Economy?

With the outbreak of the Russia-Ukraine War, the United States and European Union (EU) countries responded to the Russian military offensive by instituting a comprehensive set of economic sanctions, including the unusual step of isolating Russia from the Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications (SWIFT) system, thus increasing the...

Challenges to World Development in 2022

The World Bank has released its latest report on world development entitled “World Development Report 2022: Finance for an Equitable Recovery”, which looks into the central role of financing in the economic recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic which gave rise to the greatest economic crisis the world has witnessed...

Real Estate Transaction Tax: Addressing Challenges of Egypt’s Real...

The Egyptian government is studying the introduction of amendments to real estate laws to resolve the accumulating challenges in the sector. Among these amendments is a draft law to amend certain provisions of the Income Tax Law 91/2005 on the real estate transaction tax.  The amendments are meant to define...

The Future of the Nile Delta: Climate Change Repercussions...

The industrial revolution that began more than 150 years ago gave rise to the combustion of billions of tons of fuel, which contributed to the trapping of greenhouse gases, bringing about a change in the Earth's climate. Despite the importance of this issue and the world’s disparate efforts to...

Volunteering in Egypt: Towards a Paradigm Shift

Volunteering is an important social capital component. As Egypt moves towards launching development plans, there emerges the need to raise awareness of the significance of volunteering, which raises questions about the scope and scale of volunteering in Egypt, how far it develops and supports development efforts, and the prospects...

Strategic Dimensions: Egypt-Djibouti Relations

The visit of Djiboutian President Ismail Omar Guelleh to Egypt on 6 February bore strategic dimensions and significant implications that came within the framework of Egypt’s commitment to build strategic and political ties in the Horn of Africa. The timing of the visit was critical, given the mounting tensions...

Promoting Social Protection: Egypt’s Commodity Subsidy System

Subsidy is a thorny subject that is difficult to handle in many countries. In essence, subsidies are a tool for achieving the state’s social goals (e.g. fair distribution of income and alleviating poverty). They play a role in ensuring internal political stability, and have a direct economic impact on...

Phenomenal Performance: How the Suez Canal Exceeded Expectations in...

Despite the many undesirable events that unfolded last year and were meant to disrupt the flow in the Suez Canal, the Suez Canal managed to hit record highs, achieving the highest annual revenue in its history and the largest net tonnage. This came at a time the global shipping sector...

Effective Policies: Managing Inflation in Egypt in 2021

There have been several major developments in 2021 that have had varying impacts on economies the world over. The beginning of the year witnessed a decreased economic activity worldwide due to the repercussions of Covid-19 and the application of relevant precautionary measures. This affected a large number of economic...

The Egyptian Exchange: 2021/2022 Harvest and Trends

A Year with Poor Performance The performance of the Egyptian Exchange (EGX) in 2021 wasn’t so good. Its performance came the worst among stock exchanges worldwide, recording a 23 percent decline along with the departure of foreign investors and individuals’ control over the performance of bourses throughout the year. When...

Egypt’s IPO Program: Maximizing the Private Sector’s Role in...

Egypt seeks to complete the structural reforms of the economic program by focusing on creating an investment-friendly environment and promoting private investments. Generally, the Egyptian state assumed the largest role in the economic life in the period from 2011 to 2013 where the country experienced political and security turmoil,...

Reviving Luxor’s Avenue of the Sphinxes: A New Cultural...

On 25 November, the world witnessed a remarkable cultural and touristic event, with Egypt reopening the King’s Festivities Road, known as Al-Kibash Venue or the Avenue of the Sphinxes, following assiduous intermittent efforts over the past decades to excavate, restore, and develop the avenue, bringing life back to the...

Global Trend: Taxing Bloggers and Online Content Creators

In late September 2021, the Egyptian Tax Authority (ETA) released a statement imposing taxes on bloggers and digital content creators, particularly YouTubers. The statement indicated that individuals engaged in online content creation (i.e. bloggers and YouTubers) should apply for income tax filing and register for VAT when their revenues...

Challenges of Protecting Egypt’s Heritage

Tearing down Andrew's Palace in Luxor has recently been the subject of heated debate with circles interested in antiquities and heritage underscoring the value of the palace. However, officials denied that the palace was listed as an antiquity or a heritage building of a distinct character. This logjam raised...

The National Strategy to Combat FGM: What’s Next?

Egypt launched a national strategy to fight the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) in 2016. In 2020, the strategy’s executive plan drew to a close. Several domestic and international bodies took part in the implementation of the strategy. The strategy was prepared by the Ministry of Health and Population...

Egypt’s philosophy of development: The health Sector

Developing Egypt’s health sector has been a top priority for President Abdel-Fattah Al-Sisi ever since he came to power in 2014, being one of the most vital sectors affecting the bulk of Egypt’s population. Egypt’s efforts in this aspect were directed towards two main areas: 1) rehabilitation of the...

Universal Health Insurance: Challenges and Aspirations

Reforming the health sector is a gruelling process and notching up success in it is quite challenging. Yet, Egypt took on this challenge. Towards that end, Egypt approved the Universal Health Insurance (UHI) Law 2/2018 in December 2017 and its implementing regulations in May 2018. De facto implementation of...

Egypt and the European gas crisis

Natural gas prices in Europe have skyrocketed during the past six months. On 1 April, they stood at $19 per gigawatt hour. By 27 September they had reached $74, a 500 per cent increase.  The pressures of demand are certain to push up prices further in the short and medium...

The New Administrative Capital: Egypt’s Promising Future

The New Administrative Capital, located 45km east of Cairo on the way to the port city of Suez, has in store a promising future for Egypt. The modern smart city is being built over a stretch of 28 miles, which is equal to the size of Singapore.  Egypt announced the...

What Egypt Stands to Gain from Joining the Africa...

The cabinet has recently approved Egypt’s accession to the Lagos-headquartered Africa Finance Corporation (AFC), with the Ministry of Finance representing Egypt as the 32nd member state to join the institution. The AFC is a pan-African development institution that provides funding and makes investments in the infrastructure sector in Africa.  Egypt’s...

Biodiversity and Natural Reserves in Egypt

The 2020 Global Risks Report of the World Economic Forum identified biodiversity loss and ecosystem collapse among the top five risks facing humanity, due to the high dependency of health care systems on biodiversity, with four billion people relying on natural medicines and 70 percent of cancer drugs derived...

Transportation and Mobility in Cairo: The Debate on Modernization...

Cairo’s infrastructure had never been an obstacle in the way of the movement of goods and individuals in the past centuries. However, by the end of the 19th century, modernization projects brought about a substantial change to the city’s urban structure, giving birth to new neighborhoods and districts outside...

Lebanon’s economic crunch and fuel shortages

Lebanon has been suffering a host of crises the latest of which is power cuts. The Lebanese have been enduring the lack of electricity for as many as 18 hours a day. Power outages have further weakened the country’s fragile economy and the situation is getting worse by the...

Egyptian Startups: Reality and Prospects

Startups and entrepreneurship are distinctive features of the modern age. A considerable proportion of youth are characterized by free-thinking, being digital natives, taking off the beaten track, and starting their own businesses instead of working in the public or private sectors.  The economic climate that prevailed in the aftermath of...

Sustaining Momentum: Egypt’s Strategy to Boost Water Security

Egypt suffers from water poverty amid a water shortage driven by the increasing population and the various activities that require the use of water. Meanwhile, Egypt’s share of water resources is not by any means on the rise. Consequently, the need to find alternative, non-traditional and reliable resources has increased...

The Intricate Implications of Lebanon’s Economic Crisis

Until recently, Lebanon was dubbed the Switzerland of the Middle East. However, this has not been the case since fall 2019.  Lebanon has been enduring a severe economic and financial crisis that was followed by the COVID-19 pandemic and the Beirut Port explosion which resulted in more than 200 fatalities...

Unprecedented Revival: Egypt’s Becomes Self-Sufficient in Natural Gas

Investment and economic growth rates in Egypt have been flourishing since 2014 with a stable investment plan being introduced, more national projects implemented, and a clear transparent economic policy adopted. In parallel, the government introduced facilitative policies to pursue reforms in the energy sector building on several pillars, including...

Egypt’s Industrial Sector: Positive Indicators and Ongoing Support

The industrial sector is considered a key driver of economic growth given its close relationship with the agricultural and services sectors. In addition, it plays a critical role in stimulating the economic growth over the medium and long terms.  Growth in the industrial sector will contribute to achieving self-sufficiency across...

Radical Overhaul: Egypt’s Plan to Upgrade the Railway Network

Egypt has allocated an increasing amount of funding for infrastructure development since 2014. The transport sector has become a key driver of economic development and growth in Egypt serving as a link between markets and production outlets. Egypt’s unique geographical location and infrastructure expansion will reinforce the country’s position...

The National Museum of Egyptian Civilization: A Paradigm Shift...

In early April, Egypt inaugurated the National Museum of Egyptian Civilization (NMEC), touted as the biggest national museum in the Middle East and Africa. This gigantic museum stretches over an area of more than 33 acres and houses 50,000 archeological artifacts and art objects dating back to different eras...

The Law of General Average: Ever Given Compensation Crisis

When the mega MV Ever Given ran aground at on 23 March and completely blocked the southern end of the Suez Canal for nearly seven days, considerable repercussions of the crisis were inevitable, commensurate with impeding the flow of international trade. The obstruction of the canal resulted in the...

Egypt’s Industrial Sector: Positive Indicators and Ongoing Support

The industrial sector is considered a key driver of economic growth given its close relationship with the agricultural and services sectors. In addition, it plays a critical role in stimulating the economic growth over the medium and long terms.  Growth in the industrial sector will contribute to achieving self-sufficiency across...

Long Shadows: The impact of informality on economic recovery

In times of crises and insecurity, the informal sector often becomes a resort to many workers rendered jobless during economic downturns. By definition, the informal sector is not monitored by governments. Unlike other crises, the pandemic has had an uneven impact on both the formal and informal sectors, leaving...

Social protection: Egypt’s efforts to alleviate poverty and support...

Egypt’s poverty rates declined by 3% for the first time in the past decade after a perpetual rise that was mainly driven by the global financial crunch and the economic and political instability since 2011. Other reasons that led to the skyrocketing of the poverty rates include the floatation...

Will raising teachers’ salaries enhance their performance?

Low pay is a frequent complaint of teachers across the world. Teachers often request a raise that would provide them with a fitting standard of living for nation-builders. Some education researchers suggest a positive link between increasing salaries and the quality of educational outcomes.  However, this relationship remains uncertain. Raising...

Bullying between education and legislation

Bullying has recently proliferated in our society, prompting official and unofficial responses ranging from awareness campaigns to legislation.  Bullying, by definition, is a type of aggression of varying degrees of intensity and forms. The UNICEF has developed three characteristics that distinguish bullying from other negative behaviors and practices, namely imbalance...

Investment in Egypt amid Covid-19

The outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic and its negative repercussions on world economies resulted in full or partial lockdown across the world, causing many economic activities to stop and investment risks to increase.  The lockdown brought about a slowdown in established investment projects, a sharp fall in investment flows, and...

Telda: The future of digital banks in Egypt

In recent years the world has seen a boom in digital transformation, including digital banks. These offer financial services and products (e.g. deposits, withdrawals, transfers, saving accounts management, and loans) online without the need for physical branches.  The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing measures contributed to accelerating...

Fintech in non-banking financial activities: Benefits and challenges

The world has been undergoing rapid and successive technological developments across almost all sectors, extending to the monetary and financial sectors, giving rise to new and innovative financial products and services.  As Egypt is moving towards adopting a unified national strategy for financial inclusion, expanding the beneficiary base of non-banking...

The domino effect: Global chip shortage crisis hits the...

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, the world has been faced with unprecedented economic challenges that went beyond the macroeconomic aspects, i.e. contraction of global gross domestic product (GDP) and reduction of global trade, to hit the smallest units of the economic system.  The pandemic has...

Egypt allocates $500 million for rebuilding Gaza

Egypt’s presidential spokesman announced on 18 May the launch of a presidential initiative to reconstruct the Gaza Strip at the cost of $500 million following the Israeli shelling of Gaza since 6 May. The initiative includes the participation of Egyptian companies specialized in the fields of infrastructure and contracting...

International media and Egypt’s role in the Gaza ceasefire:...

Over the past years, there has been a long-standing controversy in Egypt over the international and regional media’s handling of Egypt’s internal affairs and its foreign policy. Egypt’s criticisms of international media has been driven by a genuine desire that those major media and press organizations see Egypt through...

Parliamentary elections 2020: Boosting stability and a launching point

I. The political environment of elections: Elections of the Egyptian House of Representatives were held in the fourth quarter of 2020. This is the second parliamentary election held under the current political system, and the first after the constitutional amendment in 2019. The House of Representatives elections come with a...

Evaluating Egypt’s industrial exports

The Egyptian economy has been on a long path to recovery since 2020 following a severe economic shock considered the deepest locally since the 1980s; a shock that came as result of the economy’s sources of revenue being badly hit and its expenses reaching an all-time high as a...

Favorable circumstances: Investing in Egyptian banks

The negative views of investors regarding the Central Bank of Egypt’s (CBE) decision requiring banks to retain profits and not to make any dividend payouts for the fiscal year 2020 prompted a wave of selling in the Egyptian stock market, hitting shares of the biggest Egyptian banks causing the...

Positive performance: Managing Egypt’s budgetary pressures

COVID-19 could be seen as an acid test to the Egyptian economy’s ability to go along the path of its economic reform program implemented over the period 2016-2019. When the pandemic broke out, the FY2020-2021 budget – touted to be the largest budget in Egypt’s history hitting an all-time...

Trade between Egypt and Nile Basin Countries

Economic cooperation between Egypt and African countries contributes to enhancing trade, increasing investment, accessing world markets and increasing competitiveness. Egypt is one of the 54 signatories to the African Free Trade Agreement, which provides for 90 percent tariff hikes on goods within five years of entry into force to...

Economics of food security in Egypt

With the rise in population in Egypt – currently one of the most populated countries in North Africa and the Arab world – and in line with Egypt’s Vision 2030, launched in 2016, the government has changed policy design, implementation, and scope of national social security and food provision...

Green economy: Egypt’s gateway to sustainable development

Green economy is meant to achieve sustainable development while observing environmental standards and significantly reducing environmental impacts. It has many significant benefits, including promoting economic growth opportunities, diversifying sources of production, alleviating poverty, and creating and expanding investment opportunities. As countries seek to improve the quality of life and the...

Egyptian cotton: A new system to restore its global...

Egyptian cotton is recognized worldwide for its high quality. Its fame earned it a prominent place in terms of domestic production and consumption. In addition, Egyptian cotton is one of the main export crops that the state’s economic policy aims at maximizing its returns by increasing the quantity of...

Investing in Energy: The New Egyptian, Palestinian, Israeli Projects

The Egyptian Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources visited Palestine and Israel on 21 February to bolster the objectives of the East Mediterranean Gas Forum. During the visit, the Egyptian and Israeli governments approved an agreement between Egyptian and Israeli companies to extend a new marine gas pipeline to...

Targeting Inflation: Egypt’s Policies of Economic Recovery

The global economy is witnessing the worst crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s due to the rapid spread of the coronavirus. The pandemic has resulted in a sharp decline in all economic activity levels in advanced and developing economies alike. Moreover, the outbreak is negatively affecting consumers’...

Achievements of the 2020 elections

Egypt concluded its second legislative elections since the 30 June 2013 Revolution in December. The voting, held in several phases for the House of Representatives and the Senate, overcame various challenges, not least being the exceptional circumstances related to the Covid-19 pandemic. Some observers tended to reduce the outcome to...

Incentive and performance: Improving teachers’ conditions and professional performance

In light of the Ministry of Education’s announcement that 2020 would be the Year of Teacher’s Appreciation, the Egyptian parliament approved a package of financial benefits for teachers to improve their conditions. The benefits were introduced in response to President Abdel-Fattah Al-Sisi's mandate to launch a project aiming at...

A Shift in Education: Teaching “Values and Respect for...

The Egyptian Ministry of Education introduced a new school subject, “Values and Respect for the Other”, taught to third-grade students starting this year. The curriculum was printed in a book.  The introduction of the subject was the result of a presidential directive in response to the proposal of a special-needs...

Effective protection: Egypt counters coronavirus repercussions on women

The coronavirus pandemic has negatively affected women's rights and lives worldwide. Social and psychological burdens have increased since the onset of the crisis, through the social, health and family roles that women play, as well as their important role in the front lines of the fight against the pandemic.  According...

Why Does Egypt Expand in the Establishment of International...

Egypt is expanding in the establishment of international schools, after investment in the field was limited to the private sector. In 2010, the government opened the Nile Egyptian Schools, offering an English-language curriculum in cooperation with Cambridge, with internationally accredited certificates.  Although the government began developing the local education system...

From Crisis to Abundance: Egypt’s Electricity Sector on the...

Egypt’s energy sector has recently become an attractive investment in spite of the various difficulties it faced over the past years. In its publication, published earlier this year, Fitch Solution Group stated that the electricity sector is on the right track, as it generates now an exportable surplus. The...

Horizons of Development Owing to American Diploma Exam Problem

The current problem concerning high school’s American Diploma proves that adopting international educational systems not subject to Ministry of Education and Technical Education supervision is not a fundamental solution to the problems of Egypt’s governmental education system. The administrative mismanagement of the American Diploma was evident when the SAT...

Mixed Signals: The Effect of Coronavirus on Egypt’s Foreign...

The coronavirus was first detected in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019. The virus spread all over the world, infecting more than 24 million and killing 831,000 people. Economic growth slowed down and trade between countries was hindered due to the pandemic. Governments adopted unprecedented measures to curb the...

Egypt’s Diplomacy of Humanitarian Aid

Amid the unprecedented challenges to development, natural disasters, crises and the coronavirus epidemic, Egyptian diplomacy affirmed its adherence to the principles and values of humanity and solidarity between peoples. Egypt’s foreign policy has recently shown strong humanitarian support, intensifying its humanitarian and relief aid. The Egyptian Fund for Technical Cooperation...

The Confident Bet: How did the Government’s Measures Improve...

Egypt is a hub for foreign direct investments in Africa. In recent years, the government enforced political stability and security, improved the investment climate, and embarked on economic reforms in November 2016. The measures boosted investors’ confidence in Egypt’s economy. However, there still remain obstacles for countries investing in...

The Repercussion of Reduced Oil Prices amid the Coronavirus...

In April 2020, global oil prices plummeted to a low of $18.3 per barrel, the lowest price since June 1999 when the average was set at $15.8 per barrel. Reduced oil prices should work in favor of the economy in Egypt, a net oil importer. However, the decline in...

The Oil Market in the Shadow of Coronavirus: The...

The oil market was exposed to one of the biggest shocks in its history with the outbreak of the Corona pandemic, and the events that coincided with it. The most important of which is the American trade war with its partners, led by China and the European Union, in...

Development in Egypt since the revolution of 30 June...

Seven years is the age of the 30th of June 2013 revolution, which ushered in another revolution of a new kind, the "development revolution", in which new methods and ideas were launched in managing the country's resources, in the largest practical application of thinking out the box. This was...

Aviation Industry and National Security

In past decade, the world has seen a lot of controversially new political and influential approaches that reshaped a lot of hard core international definitions. Tools influencing Political dominance has changed, to a more advanced approach, introducing 4th generation warfare approach, in which countries use non-conventional tactics to inforce...

Right to Life, Respect and Protection of Humanity: Guaranteed...

Government guarantees protecting the rights of individuals enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human rights is not limited to their own citizens only, but also protecting the rights of refugees and migrants to their countries. Egypt is a country that is committed to protecting refugee rights since it signed the...

Human Rights in Egypt: Pragmatic Translation of Political Will

The Egyptian state adopted many of the recommendations of the UN Human Rights Council and has made great progress on several issues, most notably boosting women’s rights and empowering women in all aspects. The state implemented recommendations on violence against women by issuing legislation, new laws and embedding the principle...

The Right to Health in Egypt

“Every citizen has the right to health and to comprehensive healthcare which complies with quality standards. The State shall maintain and support public health facilities that provide health services to the people, and shall enhance their efficiency and their equitable geographical distribution,” states Article 18 of the Egyptian constitution.  Egyptians have the right to receive comprehensive healthcare...

Egypt’s Comprehensive Vision for Human Rights

The issue of human rights is at the center of the comprehensive national project Egypt has adopted since 2014. The state is concentrating its efforts on the issue of human rights to achieve the aspirations of the Egyptian people that carried out two revolutions within three years. Despite the...

Sinai: A Strategy for Development amid Fighting Terrorism

In the anti-Egypt camp, some of its pockets and remnants continue to fight for their lives. This camp supports the terrorist Muslim Brotherhood organization, which its units have been united in a single trench since the Egyptian revolution in June 2013, seeking to destabilize the Egyptian state. These pockets...

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